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Note: If you’re likely to change your rear diff fluid yourself, (or you plan on opening the diff up for assistance) before you let the fluid out, make sure the fill port can be opened. Absolutely nothing worse than letting fluid out and then having no way of getting new fluid back in.
FWD last drives are very simple in comparison to RWD set-ups. Almost all FWD engines are transverse installed, which implies that rotational torque is created parallel to the direction that the tires must rotate. There is no need to modify/pivot the path of rotation in the ultimate drive. The final drive pinion equipment will sit on the end of the output shaft. (multiple Final wheel drive result shafts and pinion gears are feasible) The pinion equipment(s) will mesh with the ultimate drive ring gear. In almost all instances the pinion and ring gear will have helical cut the teeth just like the rest of the tranny/transaxle. The pinion gear will be smaller sized and have a lower tooth count than the ring equipment. This produces the final drive ratio. The band equipment will drive the differential. (Differential operation will be explained in the differential portion of this article) Rotational torque is sent to the front tires through CV shafts. (CV shafts are commonly referred to as axles)
An open up differential is the most typical type of differential within passenger vehicles today. It is a very simple (cheap) design that uses 4 gears (occasionally 6), that are known as spider gears, to operate a vehicle the axle shafts but also permit them to rotate at different speeds if required. “Spider gears” is usually a slang term that is commonly used to spell it out all of the differential gears. There are two different types of spider gears, the differential pinion gears and the axle part gears. The differential case (not casing) gets rotational torque through the band equipment and uses it to drive the differential pin. The differential pinion gears ride on this pin and are driven because of it. Rotational torpue can be then transferred to the axle part gears and out through the CV shafts/axle shafts to the tires. If the vehicle is venturing in a directly line, there is absolutely no differential action and the differential pinion gears will simply drive the axle aspect gears. If the vehicle enters a change, the external wheel must rotate faster compared to the inside wheel. The differential pinion gears will start to rotate because they drive the axle side gears, allowing the external wheel to increase and the within wheel to slow down. This design is effective as long as both of the powered wheels have traction. If one wheel does not have enough traction, rotational torque will follow the path of least level of resistance and the wheel with small traction will spin while the wheel with traction will not rotate at all. Since the wheel with traction isn’t rotating, the automobile cannot move.
Limited-slip differentials limit the amount of differential actions allowed. If one wheel starts spinning excessively faster than the other (way more than durring normal cornering), an LSD will limit the quickness difference. That is an benefit over a normal open differential style. If one drive wheel looses traction, the LSD actions allows the wheel with traction to obtain rotational torque and allow the vehicle to go. There are many different designs currently in use today. Some are better than others based on the application.
Clutch style LSDs derive from a open differential design. They possess a separate clutch pack on each of the axle aspect gears or axle shafts in the final drive housing. Clutch discs sit down between your axle shafts’ splines and the differential case. Half of the discs are splined to the axle shaft and the others are splined to the differential case. Friction material is used to split up the clutch discs. Springs place strain on the axle aspect gears which put pressure on the clutch. If an axle shaft wants to spin quicker or slower than the differential case, it must conquer the clutch to do so. If one axle shaft attempts to rotate quicker than the differential case then your other will attempt to rotate slower. Both clutches will withstand this action. As the speed difference increases, it becomes harder to overcome the clutches. When the vehicle is making a good turn at low rate (parking), the clutches offer little level of resistance. When one drive wheel looses traction and all the torque goes to that wheel, the clutches resistance becomes a lot more apparent and the wheel with traction will rotate at (near) the velocity of the differential case. This kind of differential will most likely require a special type of liquid or some kind of additive. If the liquid is not changed at the proper intervals, the clutches can become less effective. Resulting in little to no LSD actions. Fluid change intervals differ between applications. There is certainly nothing incorrect with this design, but remember that they are only as strong as a plain open differential.
Solid/spool differentials are mostly used in drag racing. Solid differentials, like the name implies, are totally solid and will not enable any difference in drive wheel rate. The drive wheels usually rotate at the same speed, even in a change. This is not an issue on a drag race vehicle as drag vehicles are traveling in a straight line 99% of the time. This may also be an edge for cars that are getting set-up for drifting. A welded differential is a normal open differential that has acquired the spider gears welded to create a solid differential. Solid differentials certainly are a great modification for vehicles created for track use. As for street use, a LSD option would be advisable over a solid differential. Every change a vehicle takes may cause the axles to wind-up and tire slippage. This is most visible when generating through a slower turn (parking). The effect is accelerated tire wear and also premature axle failing. One big benefit of the solid differential over the other styles is its strength. Since torque is applied right to each axle, there is absolutely no spider gears, which are the weak spot of open differentials.